Flow. Lots of flow.

Flow. Lots of flow.
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Over the years, many things have flowed across the surface of Mars: lava, ice, water, and wind. Two things have flowed in this image (the view is 0.75×0.6 km or 0.47×0.37 mi): Image credit: HiRISE ESP_026541_1840, NASA/JPL/Univ. of Arizona If you know my blog at all, then you might recognize the big structures as yardangs.

Wind-exposed layers

Wind-exposed layers
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On Earth, layers comprising the geological record of an area are most often exposed by fluvial erosion, as a river cuts through rock (a typical example is the Grand Canyon). On Mars, fluvial channels are not so common (especially in the past few billion years). But the wind has relentlessly worked away at the surface,

Overhang

A Piece of Mars: There’s a fabric of erosion in this 1×1 km (0.62×0.62 mi) scene, with the main wind blowing from lower right to upper left (and if you look carefully you’ll see there’s a second, subtler fabric a bit clockwise from that one). The result is a landscape strewn with streamlined rock called

Just do it

A Piece of Mars: It’s all about wind scour here in this 0.75×0.75 km (0.47×0.47 mi) view. The big “swoop” is an erosional channel dug into the surface by winds (blowing from the lower left) trying to erode the hills in the center. But notice that the hills are all aligned to the upper left/lower

Endless wind

A Piece of Mars: This 2.88×1.13 km (1.79×0.70 mi) scene shows quintessential Mars, with a 670 m diameter impact crater heavily modified by wind erosion. Both the crater floor and the surrounding terrain are covered by what is likely loosely-cemented dust. The texture is that of wind-eroded materials, but to make this texture that material

Experimenting with 3D views

A Piece of Mars: I often use JMARS to visualize Mars data sets, especially images. They’ve recently updated their 3D layer, allowing folks to make lovely vistas by overlaying DTMs with images. I’m new at this, but I’ll experiment and see what I can do to make nice views. Here’s a series of barchan dunes

Windblown or not? Probably…

A Piece of Mars: This 0.95×0.95 km (0.59×0.59 mi) scene shows an eroding surface punctured by some old craters. Long, thin lines seem to form in the wake of many brighter knobs. Are those thin lines windblown in origin? They look like erosional features – things that are left behind when other stuff erodes away

Dunes carving up rock (3D)

A Piece of Mars: Get out your 3D blue/red glasses (or look here for a 2D version if you can’t find them). This is a 3.2×1.8 km (2×1.13 mi) scene showing dark dunes carving lanes 50-70 m (165-230 ft) deep into a stack of brighter sedimentary layers. Over time, the sand wears down the rock

On Mars the wind carves stream channels

A Piece of Mars: This 1.6×2 km (1×1.24 mi) scene mostly shows what wind will do to fine-grained, weakly-consolidated surfaces. It has created topography that further strengthens wind scour in the hollows, which even leave kilometers-long grooves reminiscent of water-carved streams. If this were Earth I’d guess they had been carved by water first. But