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Opening up the Gates of Hell

Dante's Inferno, illustrated by Gustave Doré, 1890

Pluto needs more moons!

In addition to surpassing 220,000 votes in just a bit over three days, we have received about 15,000 nominations for alternative names. Today I have just added eight more to the ballot, selected from among the most popular nominees. (more…)

Vulcan joins the Ballot

We have made our first addition to the ballot. Vulcan is the Roman god of lava and smoke, and the nephew of Pluto. (Any connection to the Star Trek TV series is purely coincidental, although we can be sure that Gene Roddenberry read the classics.). Thanks to William Shatner for the suggestion!


Naming the Moons of Pluto

The naming of a moon is a rare privilege for any astronomer. Fewer than 200 moons have been discovered orbiting the Solar System’s planets (dwarf or otherwise).

Over the centuries, the astronomical community has established standards for the naming of moons. Most names come from ancient mythologies. The moons of Uranus are the exception, with names coming primarily from the works of William Shakespeare.

These rules ensure that newly-discovered moons receive names that have already stood the test of time. The same names will still be in use centuries and even millennia from now. Whereas today’s literature might be long forgotten, we can be confident that future generations of astronomers (and maybe even astronauts) will still recall the stories from Mount Olympus and Stratford-upon-Avon.

I suspect these naming traditions did not arise by accident. For whatever reason, we humans seem to have a deep-seated, pre-scientific need to interpret the night sky in terms of stories. Naturally, we choose the big stories, involving grand themes, great powers and deep mysteries.

I was previously involved in the naming of three moons: Pan at Saturn, plus Mab and Cupid at Uranus. In each case, the process was simple and straightforward. We pulled out our dusty old copies of Bullfinch’s Mythology or the Riverside Shakespeare and started browsing. (In each case, I also experienced a wistful regret that I had not spent more time studying literature in college, back when I still had the opportunity.)

When we announced the discoveries of Pluto’s fourth and fifth moons, it became clear to me that the naming process might have to be different. This time, I received hundreds of spontaneous, unsolicited suggestions. I suspect that some of the world’s affection for Pluto comes from its so-called “demotion” to dwarf planet status. Perhaps it is also because the names of Pluto’s moons are all associated with Hades and the Underworld, the stuff of so many of our most primal fears. Whatever the reason, the discovery team has decided that it would be unfair to keep the naming process to ourselves.

Starting today, we are trying something new. We are asking the public to help us name the moons. Visit and tell us what you think. We have seeded the ballot with a few names, or you can propose your own. The names will still have to be approved by the International Astronomical Union, but we will use your votes to help us decide the names we propose.

Please join us in adding the next chapter to the story of Pluto.